IEC 62443 and the Pillars of Cybersecurity by Andrew Chan, Product Manager – Industrial Communication, Siemens

Transport operations are being shaped by the accelerated developments in technology and the realized benefits of the Internet and data. The challenge lies in achieving a digital transformation without jeopardizing the operational safety or exposing it to security vulnerabilities, all while addressing cybersecurity concerns and being cyber resilient.  

Transport operators are under pressure to improve all elements in operations and service delivery while being measured on profitability. In a digital age, especially as connectivity becomes more widespread, stakeholders in the transport sector require accurate and timely information that allows them to make informed decisions faster.  

Two concepts are commonly referred to in the cybersecurity world: (1) Security Levels and Maturity Levels from the IEC 62443 standard, and (2) the defence in depth concept. 

IEC 62443 is a series of international standards for securing Industrial Automation and Control Systems (IACS). An increasing range of technologies and processes are designed to comply with such standards, where every stage of the value chain and stakeholder is covered to enable standardized risk assessments and mitigation measures.  

Recognizing that not every system is equally critical, IEC 62443 defines four security levels (SL): from SL 1 (resistant to coincidental violations) to SL 4 (resistant against nation-state attacks). This applies to the component or system level and is something that many railway experts recognize as the security equivalent of the Safety Integrity Levels (SIL). Similarly, Maturity Levels (ML) are defined from ML 1 (ad-hoc processes) to ML 4 (evidence of documentation, process, practice and continuous improvement). These levels allow a clear and easily understood expectation of an organisation’s security posture. 

We can improve our cybersecurity posture by applying a defence in depth approach. Defence in depth is the concept of protecting a network with a series of defensive mechanisms such that, if one mechanism fails, another will already be in place to thwart an attack. Because there are so many potential attackers with such a wide variety of attack methods available, there is no single method for successfully protecting a network.   

Applying a defence in depth strategy will significantly reduce the risk of having a successful and likely very costly attack on a network. As the leading actor for accidents and faults, the “people” aspect is paramount to drive strong processes, the next pillar. “Processes” and standards need to be properly defined to protect against unintentional errors and form a baseline for the handling of threats and managing controls. “Technology” is the use of hardware (such as data diodes) and software solutions and strategies to achieve a cyber secure system.  

An overall defence in depth approach builds on a union of people, processes, and technology. Each pillar and its implementation will be unique to every organisation as they will have security levels and maturity levels. As we push and strive for innovation and transformation in our transport sector, we must recognise the importance of a holistic cybersecure strategy.  

Key trends in cyber security


Image: Pillars of Cybersecurity – People, Process and Technology. Source: Siemens 

President’s Letter – May 2021

Hi everyone and welcome to another edition of YTP’s quarterly newsletter. I hope you enjoyed learning more about YTP, our Committee members and the wide world of transport and are looking forward to another update! 

Since our inaugural newsletter release in January, the YTP Committee has been adjusting to Australia’s new normal. After 6 months of virtual communication, it’s been a refreshing change to meet in person – several of us for the first time at Barefoot Bowls in March! Check out this quarter’s events recap to read more about the evening, as well as the Downer Rollingstock Maintenance webinar series and our upcoming events. 

Also in this edition, we shine a light on key members of the Committee. In our regular ‘Get to Know the Committee’ feature, learn more about our Treasurer and Vice President, Adnan Alam, and our Communications and Digital Coordinators, Michael Greenwood and Russell Oliver, their different experiences in the transport industry and what they love about it. Our Membership Coordinate, Andrew Chan, gives us ‘A Minute on Cyber Security’, containing extracts from his AusRAIL presentation from last year: The Cybersecurity Challenges of Railway Data. 

As always, I would like to thank our industry partners, the Aurecon Jacobs and Mott MacDonald Joint Venture, the Victorian Department of Transport (DoT) and Metro Trains Melbourne, for their continued support. In particular, I would like to thank Emma Miller-Olsen, Operations Manager for Regional Roads Victoria (DoT) and one of Engineers Australia’s 2020 Professional Engineers of the Year, for taking part in our new  ‘A Day in the Life’ feature, along with key representatives from the Barwon South West Region. 

Our inbox is always open, so please get in touch if you have any suggestions on how we can improve articles or if you would like to contribute. Happy reading! 

Events Recap – Q2 2021

YTP Christmas Trivia 

After a long year, YTP celebrated the end of 2020 by hosting a virtual Christmas Trivia. The evening was a fun and eventful night filled with a variety of general knowledge and transport related questions. We also hosted breakout rooms to allow participants to meet new people and interact with others throughout the night. The event allowed us to see the competitiveness and imaginative drawings from our membersas well as the great banter between our hosts Anita and Edward. It was a great way to end a difficult year. 

Downer Webinar Series

Due to the uncertainty of restrictions, YTP decided to continue to host its next event online. We kicked off the New Year with another collaborative event, this time with Downer’s Rollingstock Services. The webinar series were run over two weeks covering the topics of Maintenance Best Practice on Optimisation and Automation. As the webinar was hosted during the day, it was a great opportunity for members to take a break during their work to see the steps Downer have taken to enhance their maintenance capability as well as their involvement with RMIT University. With the success of this event, we hope to be able to bring more collaborative series in the future.

YTP’s 7th Annual Barefoot Bowls

YTP’s first in person event was a success! It was great to once again see everyone in person for a great night of socialising and fun. At the time of organising this event, we were all a bit cautious in the case of an unexpected lockdown or possible reintroduction of restrictions. Thankfully the event was able to go ahead and it was enjoyed by many members. It was great to see both old members returning and new members attending their first event. We are hoping to put on more social events soon and ensure we can continue to put on more social events despite the uncertain circumstances.

This was also a different barefoot bowls compared to previous years as it was a self-funded event. Despite this, the event was successful and it was great to finally see everyone in person again after more than a year. A special thanks to Richmond Union Bowling Club for continuing to host us and allowing us to put on a great event.

Upcoming Events

The events team is currently in discussions with Siemens to host our quarterly forum. More details are to come soon. We are also hoping to facilitate some in person networking events in the CBD in the near future so make sure you follow us on social media and have signed up for emails to ensure you can get your hands on tickets as soon as they’re released! We looking forward to seeing many of you in-person and virtually again soon.

Get to the know the YTP Committee – Michael, Russell & Adnan

This quarter, get to know a little more about YTP Communications Coordinator, Michael Greenwood (MG); Digital Coordinator, Russell Oliver (RO); and Treasurer, Adnan Alam (AA). Michael currently works as Digital Engagement Coordinator for ARTC; Russell is currently an Integration Engineer with MTM; and Rail Systems Alliance and Adnan is a Secondary Systems Engineer at Metro Trains Melbourne. 

Michael, Russell, Adnan

Q: How many years have you been in the transport industry? 
MG: I have been in the transport industry just over two years but have worked in engagement for almost 10 years.  

RO: This year is my 4th year in the industry.  

AA: Just like RussellI have been in the transport industry for just over 4 years 

Q: What are some of your responsibilities as part of the YTP Committee?  
MG: As the Communications Coordinator I am responsible for the quarterly newsletter, sending out event invites, surveys, and all general member communication. I provide input on the content that goes out and am currently working with Russell to help with the development of the website.  

RO: As Digital Coordinator I have been responsible for administering the YTP website, creating graphics for use on your website and other media channels. 


AA: As the Treasurer, I am responsible for maintaining accurate records of the finances of YTP. This includes ensuring we meet our legal obligations as an incorporation from a financial perspectiveI am also the vice-president of YTP this year which means I help with general administration and running of YTP when required. 

Q: How did you enter the transport industry? 
MG: I moved to Australia from Scotland and never really had my eyes set on the transport industry. After about four months of being here I was offered a job with ARTC through a recruitment agency, and never looked back! I took on a full-time position and found myself absolutely loving the industry.  

RO: I entered the industry as a graduate with Rail Projects Victoria or the Melbourne Metro Rail Authority as it was known then, which was a fantastic starting point. I got to see how large projects are managed from a client/government side all the way to being onsite supervising construction activities 

AA: I joined MTM over 3 months as a 3rd year electrical engineering student looking to complete his work experience. The 3-month contract turned into a part time employment through my final year at university, followed by 2 years in the graduate program. I moved into the internal design space soon after. 

Q: What is your favourite thing about working in transport? 
MG: Learning all about Australia, the people, the rural communities, and how transportation is shaping Australia for the future. I work on the Inland Rail project so getting to understand the needs and wants of stakeholders across three states is a fantastic experience. Going out into the field and meeting people is a great perk! 

RO: I think it’s the knowledge that the projects you work will contribute to making in some way thousands or even millions of people’s lives just a little bit better by improving the way they can get to work, school or that important medical appointment on time. 

AA: For me it has always been about making a difference. I have had the opportunity to work on some major city shaping projects and Victorian firsts across the network where I am honoured to be able to have had some input which resulted in real change. While it might be recognised on a public forum, making that difference, and having that proud, “I did that” moment is my favorite thing about working in transport. 

Q: What innovations are you looking forward to in the transport industry? 
MG: I am interested in the data analytics side and how people engage with large projects. Input from the public is very important and giving an equal voice to everyone in the community is a vital step in any major project. Finding new ways to communicate and share knowledge is something I would love to see developed.  

RO: Semi and fully autonomous transport systems have the capability to make all forms of transport safer and more reliable which I think in turn will allow for more focus on the passenger experience. 

AA: With the spotlight on climate change and transitioning to cleaner fuels, I am looking forward to innovations in engine efficiencies and regenerative power resulting in a cleaner network. 

YTP 7th Annual Barefoot Bowls

Our 7th Annual Lawn Bowls was a fantastic return to in-person events for YTP in what was our first physical event since our last lawn bowls get together one year ago!

The evening began with some networking where we were able to reconnect with old friends and meet new people. Pizza helped move the conversation along before the barefoot bowls began. This came naturally to some, whilst others required work on their technique before the competitions began. Conversations and drinks continued to flow and before long the end of the night came around.

YTP would like to thank everyone who attended and hope they enjoyed the evening. We would also like to thank the Richmond Union Bowling Club for allowing us to host our event at their venue for another year. We look forward to seeing everyone again, so stay tuned and keep an eye on your e-mails and YTP socials for more in-person events in the future.

We hope to see you at our next event!

Events Recap

from Events Coordinators Caroline Lieu and Edward Wright

The 2020-21 financial year started off with some great professional and networking events. We are both new to the role and have enjoyed organising a variety of new and different events for our members. Despite limitations brought on by social distancing and the lockdowns, we have endured, and it has been a pleasure organising these different events for our members and exploring new ways to engage with the industry.

LXRP Forum

The Level Crossing Removal Project (LXRP) forum on the evolution of the project was an interesting and informative session organised by the previous committee. The panel discussion was very engaging and covered a vast array of different fields. It was great to see that the panellists were willing to give their honest opinions of the project and what they thought contributed to the success of the project.

Virtual Coffee Catch-ups

The coffee catch-ups have been one of the new initiatives we have rolled out in light of social distancing and the lack of in-person events. It has been a great way for fellow members to catch-up with one another while also meeting new members and extending their network. We have enjoyed putting on these events with our members and facilitating discussion as it has allowed us, the Committee, to continue to connect with members and listen to their needs.

It has also been a great way for us to connect with our interstate members and allows us to branch out to other parts of Australia outside Metropolitan Melbourne. We will be looking to continue this program not only as part of our events during the Covid-19 pandemic but potentially afterwards as well. We believe this is a useful tool for us to connect with our peers as we transition to a new way of work across the industry and move away from more in-person events.

YTP-GYCRS Collaborative Event

This was one of YTP’s first collaborative event with another similar organisation – Global Youth Coalition for Road Safety. The evening focused on road safety and what young people and the community can do to ensure the roads remain safe. This was the first time YTP utilised Microsoft Teams to deliver a digital event. There was a lot of work behind the scenes to ensure the event ran smoothly but in the end the event was successful and there was plenty of discussion not only from our panellists but from the audience as well.

More events are still to come with GYCRS and we look forward to working with them in the future. This kind of event has allowed us to think of new and innovative ways to deliver events to our members despite the unusual circumstances.

President’s Address – 2021

Anita Rai PresidentFor those who do not know me, my name is Anita Rai and I have been nominated as President of the Young Transport Professionals (YTP) for the financial year 2020/2021 (FY20/21).

I’ve been involved with YTP for almost 2 years now, first as a member in 2018 and then joining the Committee last year as Communications Coordinator.

My post-university career started when I moved to Melbourne and began a job in an industry, I had no prior experience in. As many young electrical engineers, I wanted to work in renewables and save the world! However, I soon came to learn about the vibrancy of the world of transport and saw how working in this industry could fulfil my desire for a positive social and environmental impact in my career. Attending industry events that introduced me to new topics and people was instrumental in this process, especially YTP’s. Being an entity that aims to include and illuminate all facets of transport and its people, YTP covers everything from rail to road to aviation and from engineering to law to communications.

Anyone working in transport (and especially rail, like me!) knows how small the industry can feel – everyone knows everyone! Being out on site or attending a customer meeting will often involve running into someone you’ve worked with before or met at some event, and you start to notice and appreciate this tightknit community. YTP has been an excellent facilitator in growing my network and solidifying connections made, no matter what the tone of the event.

I would be remiss if I continued much further without addressing the elephant in the room that has affected each and every one of us: COVID-19.

Focussing on the transport industry: while Australia (and many other parts of the world) was locked down, reduction in traffic allowed infrastructure projects to take place uninterrupted, with governments
acknowledging the importance of investing in this area to stimulate economic recovery and create jobs.

However, this new way of living has also shaken up the industry and heightened the conversation around decentralising our cities, raising the argument between the importance of increasing mobility and increasing accessibility. Many people have also taken to utilising forms of active transport over public transport for physical and mental health reasons.

These developments in transport and in life have of course been reflected in YTP. Members know us for our events: our quarterly forums, our site visits and, of course, our social events, such as the annual Barefoot Bowls and End of Year Celebrations. This year, we have had to fully transition to connecting our members virtually and I commend last year’s Committee for their efforts in laying the groundwork for us to continue upon. To date, YTP has successfully hosted virtual trivia, a panel discussion on the Evolution of the Level Crossing Removal Project in Victoria and virtual coffee catch-ups. We’re aiming to keep up the virtual social events and have some exciting technical forums in the pipeline. We are also working hard on revamping our website to increase our online presence and will be putting out a quarterly newsletter, of which this is the first!

While it has been a challenge adapting to an online presence, this has enabled YTP to extend our reach outside Narrm (Melbourne) and start connecting with professionals and organisations not only interstate but internationally. Our Communications Coordinator, Michael Greenwood, is based up in Meanjin (Brisbane), joining the most diverse Committee since YTP’s inception more than 6 years ago. We now boast Committee members from 6 different companies from varying professional backgrounds (not just engineering!), all committed to connecting the next generation of transport leaders.

None of this could have been achieved without the support of our industry partners: Metro Trains Melbourne, the Aurecon Jacobs Mott MacDonald Joint Venture and the Victorian Department of Transport. Their generosity has been integral this year, allowing us to access platforms that have enabled us to move to an online-only presence during lockdown. With the cooperation of these three great organisations, I am looking forward to growing YTP even further over the following year. I can’t wait to see what we come up with and hope to see you along the way!